CIVAS as Consultant in the Development of the Classical Swine Fever Control and Eradication Masterplan for Indonesia
Monday, 1 December 2014
By: Sunandar and Nofita Nurbiyanti
Classical Swine Fever (CSF) or Hog Cholera is a highly contagious viral disease which attacks pigs of all ages. Morbidity and mortality rates can reach up to 95-100%. CSF has significant economic consequences on local and international businesses through potential trade restrictions between countries. It is one of the main swine diseases in Southeast Asia. This disease was first reported in Indonesia in North Sumatra in 1994. CSF then spread to the islands of Java, Bali, Kalimantan and Sulawesi. Most recently in March 2011 the disease emerged in Lembata Island in East Nusa Tenggara.
CSF control and eradication in Indonesia is led by the Directorate of Animal Health. A national masterplan for CSF control and eradication in Indonesia was developed from March to December 2014 as part of a collaborative effort between the Directorate of Animal Health, Directorate General of Livestock and Animal Health, Indonesian Ministry of Agriculture, the Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry (DAFF) of the Australian Government, the Australia Indonesia Partnership for Emerging Infectious Disease: Animal Health Program (AIP EID), and the Center for Indonesian Veterinary Analytical Studies (CIVAS) as consultant.
In preparing the development of the masterplan draft, CIVAS attended several meetings and collected data with the Directorate of Animal Health, DAFF, and several Disease Investigation Centers (DICs) and Livestock and Animal Health Services in Indonesia. The process was started with an inception workshop in Sahati Hotel in Jakarta on March 26-27, 2014, a midworkshop in Aston Hotel in Kuta, Bali, on July 17, 2014, a final workshop in the Ministry of Agriculture’s PIA Building on November 11, 2014, and several internal meetings with the Directorate of Animal Health and DAFF.
Main points of discussion were justification and challenges for CSF eradication, risk factors for disease spread, population development, export and import of live pigs and pork, area classification, freedom requirements, basic principles for CSF control and eradication, and eradication strategies. Areas were classified by disease status into free, no report, positive serology, and infected areas. The strategy for CSF eradication in Indonesia combines the following measures: (1) surveillance; (2) vaccination; (3) stamping out; (4) movement control of live pigs and pork products; (5) improving biosecurity measures in pig farms; and (6) public awareness and media campaigns.
Based on justifications and challenges identified, CSF eradication should be prioritized based on the following factors: (1) potential for pig production in the area; (2) swine population density; (3) endemic status of CSF; (4) risk of spreading CSF to other areas; (5) high commitment from the local government; and (6) the presence of previous eradication programs. Based on those factors, CSF control and eradication in pigs will be focused in North Sumatra, West Kalimantan, Bali, Central Java, East Nusa Tenggara, and North Sulawesi provinces.
Challenges for the control program will be lack of government attention/focus in disease eradication programs for swine as shown by poor data on swine disease, violations in animal movement which ignore quarantine posts, violations in animal permits where animals for slaughter are bred instead, and difficulty in obtaining local virus isolates for domestic CSF vaccine production. Required efforts include rallying commitment from the central and local government, updating data on pig disease and population, training, obtaining local legislative and financial support, and involve the private sector, research institutes/academicians, farmer associations and the general public to contribute to the control and eradication program.
Currently, the masterplan for Classical Swine Fever Control and Eradication in Indonesia is in the final review process at the Directorate of Animal Health and Directorate General for Livestock and Animal Health Services. Once it is finalized and released, it will be the national reference for CSF control and eradication in Indonesia.**