Import of Livestock and FMD Risk
Wednesday, 5 February 2014
Minister of Agriculture has expressed his desire to import opportunities from two major countries of cattle and beef cattle, Brazil and India. Because of fears from monopoly of trade given the limited supply only from two countries: Australia and New Zealand.
This statement was implified of Minister of Trade, fueled by Australia’s wiretapping case. Early 2014, the goverment will seek alternative suppliers of cattle and beef cattle, in addition to Australia. The plan is valid as perceived economic, but impact of animal health can not just ignored.
The only barrier is implementation of a system free disease country and not free zone as set in UU No. 18/2009 on Animal Husbandry and Animal Health. The Parliament and goverment was attempting to accelerate with revising this UU. Can we secure our cattle population from the threat of reentry of foot and mouth disease (FMD)?? In fact, eradication of the contagious animal disease has been successful after 100 years in this country.
Global Livestock Market
The impact of FMD causing global livestock and meat market split into two, one of market owned by country with free FMD, and the other one market in the country where FMD was still infectious, endemic. Almost all endemic country in Asia, Afrika, and South America.
Many countries do not import live cattle or fresh meat, chilled meat, or frozen meat from FMD endemic countries. As the result, many endemic country (especially developing and poor country) excluded from world trade because livestock and meat supply was limited only from developed countries.
A few developed countries were able to export live cattle. Indonesia was the largest market for Australia, even though Australia was the third world exporter. Brazil and India were the largest cattle population: 189 million and 187 million. Followed by China (more than 100 million), United States (more than 90 million), Australia (28.5 million), and New Zealand (3.69 million).
The traditionally Australia, Brazil, and US were a major exporter countries of beef cattle. Five major beef exporters are India, Australia, Brazil, US, and New Zealand. India took over the position of Australia as the big exporter in 2012. In addition to market access, FMD also affects the price in the market. Price of meat from free countries like US, Canada, Australia, Japan, and New Zealand higher than endemic countries. US imports beef cattle from Australia with premium price 30% higher than beef cattle from infected countries.
UU No 18/2009 which allow the imports from free zone of disease have been disallowed by Constitutional Court in 2012. In fact, the entry of FMD not only from legal trade in FMD free zone or free countries, but the entrance was difficult to control and probability to return of FMD into the import of contraband meat.
Basically, the system of free zone do not violated technical rules and standards in line with World Animal Health Organization (OIE). When will be import from free zone, shall run the risk mitigation effort to secure trade level. Free zone was not an unknown concept in the world of Indonesia animal health. We acknowledge officially free area of rabies or free area of brucellosis that embodies that concept.
The existence of free zone was beneficial viewed from the contexts of the eradication of infectious animal disease because it can be done progressively. Trade could still be done without having to wait until all of area was declared free. However, the impact of free zone: needs the budget to maintain free status, especially the surveillance and follow-quarantine.
Trends of FMD
Global threats of FMD will continue. FMD was destroying economic, social, and environment in many developed and developing countries. The mainly economic impact was the high productivity of livestock loss, disruption a number of activities in fields of agriculture, industry and social, even lead to the threat of food supplies.
OIE FMD free status classified into five: free country without vaccination, free country with vaccination, free zone without vaccination, free zone with vaccination, and free compartment without vaccination. Of the 178 countries OIE member, only 66 countries declared as free country of FMD without vaccination.
The only one free state of vaccination: Uruguay. Ten states have free zone without vaccination are Argentina, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Colombia, Malaysia, Moldova, Namibia, Peru, and the Philippines. Six states have free zone with vaccination: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Peru, and Turkey. 95 countries in Asia, Middle East, and Africa was declared infected with FMD.
The implication determination free statud of FMD cause no market access for cattle and buffalo ranchers in the area are not included in the above classification. The spread most commonly occurs via the live cattle trade, risk of FMD increases when importing cattle, dairy or seeds from infected country or from countries that have a free zone.
Cost consequences of FMD eradication when reentering to Indonesia will be very expensive. With free status of FMD, Indonesia could import the frozen meat from free zone with the technical requirements in accordance with OIE standards. FMD virus is difficult to survive in meat, usually can inactivated 24-72 hours after slaughtered.
The prevent systems entry of FMD should be there. Animal health agencies have not been able to anticipate and prevent the possibility of reentry FMD. Free status of FMD has been over 22 years ago since recognized by OIE in 1990. Expertise about the disease should be refreshed and developed continuously.
The goverment should strengthen diagnostic capacity in field for veterinarian in Indonesia, especially those serving in high risk area on the border and high density of cattle. Improve diagnostic capabilities by establishing a national reference laboratory and fast responding if the cases appear. Tools and human resources shall be prepared at Indonesia Research Centre for Veterinary Science/ Veterinary Center in Indonesia.
Tri Satya Puri Naipospos, Center for Indonesian Veterinary Analytical Studies