Scientific Discussion on Importation of Meat and Meat Products in Relations with FMD and BSE
Thursday, 4 October 2007
Campus of Faculty of Veterinary Medicine-Bogor Agricultural University
The scientific discussion held on October 4th, 2007 at the campus of Faculty of Veterinary Medicine – Bogor Agricultural University presented speakers: drh. Turni Rusli S (Director of Veterinary Public Health) whom presented The Policy of Carcass, Meat and Offal Importation from Other Countries; Dr. drh. Martin B Malole (Virologist) whom presented Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD); drh. Bambang Pontjo, PhD (Faculty of Veterinary Medicine – Bogor Agricultural University) whom presented Prion in Meat and Meat Products and the Impact on Human Health; and drh. Tri Satya Putri Naipospos, MPhil, PhD (Center for Indonesian Veterinary Analytical Studies) whom presented Facts and Global Perception of BSE and FMD Regarding Change in OIE Regulations. The discussion was moderated by Dr. drh Denny W Lukman and was also attended by Dr. drh. Fadjar Satrija (Head of Animal Disease Science and Veterinary Public Health Department), drh. Bachtiar Moerad (Chairman of the Indonesian Veterinary Public Health Association / ASKESMAVETI), and Dr. drh. Heru Setijanto (Dean of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine – Bogor Agricultural University).
In his opening speech, Dr. drh. Fadjar Satrija (Head of Animal Disease Science and Veterinary Public Health Department) stated that importation is currently the hot issue talked by everybody. Even in the expert’s commission, policies concerning import are continuously discussed. He hoped that this discussion could produce the best solution for importation policies. Drh. Bachtiar Moerad (Chairman of ASKESMAVETI) said that there are uncertainties in the mass media regarding meat importation policies. There are statements that say that meat imported from Canada and USA are safe for consumption. There is also a statement from the Indonesian Islamic Council (MUI) that says that the halality of meat from Australia is doubted. Every time we approach Idul Fitri and other holidays, we are always faced with these kinds of issues. Currently the credibility of veterinarians is still doubted by the society and certain parties. The veterinary public health institute is a public institute; therefore it must be transparent to the public. He hoped that this discussion will reinforce / strengthen the veterinary public health policies, which one of them is the meat importation policy. Policies must be based on the necessity of a nation/country, not for the interest of certain parties. He also hoped that this discussion could produce recommendations for the public and provide enlightment.
The last speech was from Dr. drh Heru Setijanto (Dean of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine – Bogor Agricultural University). He said that until now we have succeeded in preventing importation of Chicken Leg Quarters (CLQ) because of ASUH reasons (safe, healthy, whole, halal). The importation of MDM (Mechanically De-boned Meat) could be the port of entry for CLQ because of its un-wholeness aspect. Therefore it must be of our concern. He hoped that the results of this discussion could be an input point for the government.
Drh. Turni Rusli S (Director of Veterinary Public Health) explained that the policy of meat (beef) importation is based on the national interest aspect that 30% of meat we consume is imported from other countries. The government is attempting to overcome this problem through meat independency. Concerning BSE, Indonesia is said as not yet free, but the government has already declared Indonesia as free from BSE.
Regarding importation procedures, we review the exporting country, the slaughterhouse, and several other procedures. About halality, there is a decree which states that every exporting country must have a warranty from an Islamic body and that Islamic body must be certified by MUI. The Islamic body in that country must have a permanent employee. Every unit importing meat into Indonesia must have a halality warranty system and an officer, who is responsible for supervision of halal slaughter, handling and processing. This officer is controlled and supervised by MUI.
Regarding meat importation from Canada, the halal factor is the one requirement which has not been fulfilled until now.
Dr. drh. Martin B Malole (Virologist) presented that FMD viruses are still persistent in meat. At 4OC they survive for 120 days in lymph nodes. FMD viruses die in grounded and processed meat (autoclave 63OC). FMD viruses in meatballs cooked at 93.3 OC die. FMD viruses could be shedded with milk before clinical signs are apparent. In several milk products, FMD viruses have variable survivability. In cheese, FMD viruses still live. In cream at 93 OC/15 seconds, FMD viruses also still live. FMD viruses in meat die after 2 days at 4OC. In lymph nodes and coagulated blood, FMD viruses die after 120 days at 4OC.
Dr. Malole states that there is a risk if we import meat from a country that is not free from FMD, but if we consider the poor survivability of the FMD virus and the culture and ability of Indonesian people, then the possibility of FMD spread is most unlikely.
Drh. Bambang Pontjo, PhD (Faculty of Veterinary Medicine – Bogor Agricultural University) states that BSE is very important. Scientifically, the spongiform disease was originally genetic, but then it became infectious. In humans, it developed into CJD. This disease is very devastating social-economically. BSE is cause by a prion (protein). PrPc is a normal protein, while PrPsc is an infectious protein.
BSE was first identified in dairy cows and beef cattle in England in 1986. Until October 2007, 184,350 BSE cases were reported in England. Japan in the only country in Asia that is BSE positive (infected in 2001).
Clinical symptoms of BSE in cattle: ataxia, tremor, weakness, weight loss, thirst, sensitive to sound, light and touch, behavior alteration, and motor impair.
Disease transmission from animal to animal is through oral transmission (Meat-Bone Meal / MBM) and experimental brain inoculation. Transmission from animal to human is through oral transmission (food produced from animals), medical materials, and animal products (enzymes, vaccines from brain culture). Transmission from human to human is through cannibalism and iatrogenic infection such as cornea transplantation, necropsy equipment, hormones from cadavers, and blood products.
Prevention is the best way; there is no causalis treatment, only symptomatic. Steps that should be considered: minimize risks to humans from use of products and medical equipment from cattle, minimize risks to humans from use of products and medical equipment from humans, and minimize vCJD transmission risks from consumption of food products originating from ruminants. There is no BSE case in animals in Indonesia and also no reports in human. To anticipate BSE: 1) survey and monitoring, 2) improve knowledge and skill of field officers through trainings, 3) intensify socialization to the public, 4) prohibit importation of livestock, supplies (feed, medical products, etc) that can transmit BSE from a BSE infected country.
In her presentation, drh. Tri Satya Putri Naipospos, MPhil, PhD (CIVAS), or commonly known as drh. Tata, explained that BSE started 20 years ago. The impact of BSE is very extensive; farmers in England had suffered great lost. Cases in England reached its peak in 1992 (36,700); 4 cases per hour, 100 cases per day, 705 cases per week, and 3,085 cases per month. BSE cases exhibit abnormal nervous symptoms and the occurrence is very variable in age. MBM from mammals are then prohibited for all livestock. In 1996, all cattle above 30 months are prohibited from the food chain. Various regulations in the European Union were implemented to protect the public from BSE risks. Since 2003, the European society has omitted SRM from their food chain.
Drh. Tata also explained the Recommendations from FAO/WHO/OIE, which are:
- Every country must have a risk assessment for BSE.
- Specified risk materials must be omitted from all beef carcasses aged over 12 months and sheep.
- Rendering standards should be improved through appropriate temperature, pressure and processing time (133oC, 3 bar, 20 minutes).
- All cross contamination from rendered products in feed mills should be avoided.
- Surveillance must be implemented (passive and active).
- BSE infected cattle must be destroyed.
OIE institutes a 3 Category System
- OIE code 1999 – 2004: free, provisionally free, minimum risk, moderate risk, high risk
- OIE code 2005 – now: negligible risk, controlled risk, undetermined risk
FMD is still a threat to Indonesia and should be of our concern. In OIE, there is no regulation that prohibits us to import from a country that is not free of FMD, but there are procedures and other things. The economic impact of infectious animal diseases, including FMD, is very large, it could cost billions.
Drh. Tata concluded that Indonesia has imported boneless meat and offal (ox tail, tongue, liver and heart) from cattle aged less than 30 months. Indonesia should not import MBM (according to OIE regulations) from countries with controlled and undetermined risk categories. Occurrences of TSE in exporting countries should be a factor of consideration. The existence of live FMD viruses in canned meat importation from FMD infected countries is very minor and even negligible.
|Participant Name/ Institution||:||Haniwar Syarif / NAMPA|
|Answer||:|| drh. Turni : the government import cattle MBM only from negligible risk countries and for poultry MBM only from AI free countries. The other requirement is that it must be halal. Regarding raiding of canned meat, the government has done audit and monitoring of animal product distribution.
drh. Malole : regarding FMD, there is a case where the cow was infected due to consumption of leftovers from canned meat which did not receive even heating temperature. Concerning import, we should not be to suspicious because in America there are quite a number of slaughterhouses with good and objective meat inspection.
drh. Bambang : if China is a FMD undetermined risk country then Indonesia has the right to refuse. Indonesia has done surveillance in 2001 and even though the surveillance locations were limited, but the results conclude that Indonesia is still free from FMD. Importation of MBM should be from a negligible risk country. I recommend that with our FMD and BSE free status, Indonesia should use this moment to increase its export volume.
drh. Tata : in practice, MDM is not meat only but also offal. We need to be cautious in conducting MDM trade. Regarding canned meat, in OIE there is no statement linking it with FMD and BSE, if we want to prevent it, it should be done at the upper levels of the food chain (slaughterhouse)
|Participant Name/ Institution||:||AP3MI (supplier)|
|Question/comment||:||Canned meat, corned beef is said to be safe. The why is there mass destruction of it, while it has already been declared safe by the country of origin? What is the scientific reason for that or is there a politic motive here?|
|Answer||:||drh. Turni : regarding the safety declaration from the country of origin, since that country’s status is still undetermined risk, Indonesia still has the right to reject its products|
|Participant Name/ Institution||:||dr. drh Mangku Sitepoe|
|Answer||:||drh. Turni : the Minister of Agriculture in truth does not want to import offal, but because of public demand, it was finally done. But it is reduced to only liver and heart, and is completed with a risk assessment. Regarding canned meat, we still coordinate with other institutions.|
|Participant Name/ Institution||:||Ibu Murni / Badan POM|
|Question/comment||:||At the end of last August, we received a letter from the Livestock Services Office of East Java about meat products suspected to be illegal. Based on consumer protection, we rechecked the legality of those products, and some were expired, some do not have a ML, etc. According to the Food and Drug Monitoring Body (Badan POM), the risk of FMD in processed meat is very little. We want to ask whether imported meat should have SPP from the government or not? There is also an issue that the SPP is difficult to obtain? Are BSE and FMD infected countries treated the same in acquiring the SPP?|
|Answer||:||drh. Turni : regarding canned meat, there is some friction, for example related with ML from the Ministry of Trade and government veterinarians are responsible in prevention of zoonoses transmitted through canned-meat. Concerning SPP for meat importation, it is actually a recommendation, but the Minister of Agriculture said that a recommendation is sufficient.|
|Participant Name/ Institution||:||Bpk Indro / BBVet (virologist)|
|Question/comment||:||Virus inactivation is an important matter. About the FMD case in England which turns out to come from a BSL-4 Laboratory, if we relate it with meat importation, it means that just with a little amount of virus, there could be an outbreak, what would happen if the viruses enter in a large amout?|
|Participant Name/ Institution||:||Drh. Suli / practitioner, member of PDHI (Indonesian Veterinary Medical Association)|
|Question/comment||:||Pet food is commonly made from American MDM, how is the monitoring of it from the government?
The government should coordinate with other institutions, such as the Badan POM.
|Answer||:||drh. Turni : government monitoring of pet food is done by classifying which pet food is made from MDM, then is it domestic or imported MDM. Besides that there are also other requirements. The key point is that no SRM is allowed to enter the food chain.
drh. Bambang : pet foods should be separated based on ingredient, pet foods made from ruminant ingredients should be rejected, while pet foods from non-ruminant ingredients could be approved.